Process Optimization and Upscaling of Spray-Dried Drug-Amino acid Co-Amorphous Formulations

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The feasibility of upscaling the formulation of co-amorphous indomethacin-lysine from lab-scale to pilot-scale spray drying was investigated. A 2² full factorial design of experiments (DoE) was employed at lab scale. The atomization gas flow rate (Fatom, from 0.5 to 1.4 kg/h) and outlet temperature (Tout, from 55 to 75 °C) were chosen as the critical process parameters. The obtained amorphization, glass transition temperature, bulk density, yield, and particle size distribution were chosen as the critical quality attributes. In general, the model showed low Fatom and high Tout to be beneficial for the desired product characteristics (a co-amorphous formulation with a low bulk density, high yield, and small particle size). In addition, only a low Fatom and high Tout led to the desired complete co-amorphization, while a minor residual crystallinity was observed with the other combinations of Fatom and Tout. Finally, upscaling to a pilot scale spray dryer was carried out based on the DoE results; however, the drying gas flow rate and the feed flow rate were adjusted to account for the different drying chamber geometries. An increased likelihood to achieve complete amorphization, because of the extended drying chamber, and hence an increased residence time of the droplets in the drying gas, was found in the pilot scale, confirming the feasibility of upscaling spray drying as a production technique for co-amorphous systems.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jan 2019

Number of downloads are based on statistics from Google Scholar and

No data available

ID: 211903944