Pharmaceutical strategies to extend pulmonary exposure of inhaled medicines

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Pulmonary administration route has been extensively exploited for the treatment of local lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections, and systemic diseases such as diabetes. Most inhaled medicines could be cleared rapidly from the lungs and their therapeutic effects are transit. The inhaled medicines with extended pulmonary exposure may not only improve the patient compliance by reducing the frequency of drug administration, but also enhance the clinical benefits to the patients with improved therapeutic outcomes. This article systematically reviews the physical and chemical strategies to extend the pulmonary exposure of the inhaled medicines. It starts with an introduction of various physiological and pathophysiological barriers for designing inhaled medicines with extended lung exposure, which is followed by recent advances in various strategies to overcome these barriers. Finally, the applications of the inhaled medicines with extended lung exposure for the treatment of various diseases and the safety concerns associated to various strategies to extend the pulmonary exposure of the inhaled medicines are summarized.

Original languageEnglish
JournalActa Pharmaceutica Sinica B
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)2565-2584
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thankfully acknowledge the Liaoning Pan Deng Xue Zhe scholarship for the financial support (China). Dongmei Cun thanks the financial support from the Guiding Project for Science and Technology of Liaoning Province (No. 2019-ZD-0448 , China), and Minister of Education Chunhui Program (China). Hriday Bera thanks the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81850410554 and 82050410448).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

    Research areas

  • Inhaled sustained release formulations, Local lung diseases, Pharmaceutical strategies, Pulmonary clearance pathways, Pulmonary drug delivery, Pulmonary exposure, Pulmonary safety, Systemic diseases

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