Influence of Polyvinylpyrrolidone Molecular Weight and Concentration on the Precipitation Inhibition of Supersaturated Solutions of Poorly Soluble Drugs
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Supersaturating drug delivery systems such as solid dispersions of a drug in a polymer are frequently used in pharmaceutical development to enable oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. In this study, the influence of the concentration and molecular weight of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the precipitation inhibition of the poorly soluble drugs albendazole, ketoconazole and tadalafil is investigated to expand the understanding of the mechanism of PVP as a polymeric precipitation inhibitor. A three-level full-factorial design was used to delineate the influence of polymer concentration and viscosity of the dissolution medium on precipitation inhibition. Solutions of PVP K15, K30, K60 or K120 at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1% (w/v), as well as isoviscous solutions of PVP of increasing molecular weight, were prepared. Supersaturation of the three model drugs was induced by the use of a solvent-shift method. Precipitation of the three model drugs from supersaturated solutions in the absence and presence of polymer was investigated by the use of a solvent-shift method. Time–concentration profiles of the respective drugs in the absence and presence of polymer pre-dissolved in the dissolution medium were obtained by the use of a μDISS Profiler™ to determine the onset of nucleation and the precipitation rate. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the hypothesis that precipitation inhibition is influenced by the PVP concentration (i.e., the number of repeat units of the polymer) and the medium viscosity of the polymer for the three model drugs. This study showed that an increased concentration of PVP (i.e., an increased concentration of the PVP repeat units, independent of the molecular weight of the polymer) in solution increased the onset of nucleation and decreased the precipitation rate of the respective drugs during supersaturation, which can be explained by an increase in molecular interactions between the drug and polymer with increasing concentrations of polymer. In contrast, the medium viscosity had no significant influence on the onset of the nucleation and precipitation rate of the drugs, which can be explained by solution viscosity having a negligible effect on the rate of drug diffusion from bulk solution to the crystal nuclei. In conclusion, the precipitation inhibition of the respective drugs is influenced by the concentration of PVP, i.e., by molecular interactions between the drug and polymer. In contrast, the molecular mobility of the drug in solution, i.e., the medium viscosity, has no influence on the precipitation inhibition of the drugs.
|Number of pages||17|
|Publication status||Published - 2023|
- crystal growth, nucleation, polymer, precipitation inhibitor, solvent-shift method, supersaturation