A Multivariate Approach for the Determination of the Optimal Mixing Ratio of the Non-Strong Interacting Co-Amorphous System Carvedilol-Tryptophan

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Converting crystalline compounds into co-amorphous systems is an effective way to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. It is, however, of critical importance for the physical stability of co-amorphous systems to find the optimal mixing ratio of the drug with the co-former. In this study, a novel approach for this challenge is presented, exemplified with the co-amorphous system carvedilol-tryptophan (CAR-TRP). Following X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the ball-milled samples to confirm their amorphous form, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to investigate intermolecular interactions. A clear deviation from a purely additive spectrum of CAR and TRP was visualized in the PCA score plot, with a maximum at around 30% drug (mol/mol). This deviation was attributed to hydrogen bonds of CAR with TRP ether groups. The sample containing 30% drug (mol/mol) was also the most stable sample during a stability test. Using the combination of FTIR with PCA is an effective approach to investigate the optimal mixing ratio of non-strong interacting co-amorphous systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number801
Issue number4
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2021

    Research areas

  • co-amorphous systems, optimal mixing ratio, glass transition temperature, principal component analysis

ID: 261216115