Social and Clinical Pharmacy – University of Copenhagen

Social and Clinical Pharmacy

Social and Clinical Pharmacy's research is mainly within three broad topic areas of Medicines Use, Clinical Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Policy.
Research within each of these areas can overlap as shown in the figure.
Furthermore, research within each focus area can be situated on one or more of the levels of the user, organization and society.

Medicines useTil toppen

Medicines Use research seeks to gain an overview and understanding of the distribution of medicine use in society and the rationales for using or not using medicines.

Often the research focuses on groups such as young persons, ethnic minorities, and elderly who are at increased risk of problems with medicines.
The research can for example be about access to medicines or medication-related services and socio-economic inequities in relation to medicines use in Denmark and internationally.

Examples of Medicines Use projects

  • Antibiotics use in Newly Independent States
  • Drug use for study purposes
  • Medicine use in elementary and high schools
  • Optimizing medicines use among socially vulnerable adolescents and young adults in Denmark.

Clinical pharmacyTil toppen

Clinical pharmacy is defined by the European Society of Clinical Pharmacy as a health specialty, which describes the activities and services of the clinical pharmacist to develop and promote the rational and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices.

Clinical Pharmacy includes all the services performed by pharmacists practicing in hospitals, community pharmacies, nursing homes, home-based care services, clinics and any other setting where medicines are prescribed and used.
The term "clinical" does not necessarily imply an activity implemented in a hospital setting. It describes that the type of activity is related to the health of the patient(s).
This implies that community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists both can perform clinical pharmacy activities.

Research within this area often focuses on how pharmacists can through their specific knowledge ensure the beneficial use of medicines e.g. by collaborating with the patient and other health care professionals on medicine related issues and/or by educating about medicines.

Examples of Clinical Pharmacy projects

  • Ethnic minorities and the pharmacy
  • Pharmacist to pharmacist notes in the sectorial transition of patients from hospital to home
  • Surveying patients in a pharmacy setting – strengths, weaknesses and feasibility
  • Treatment of nephrology patients for hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

Pharmaceutical policyTil toppen

Pharmaceutical policy deals with the principles guiding decision making in the field of pharmaceuticals. The goal of pharmaceutical policy is (similar to other social policy) to contribute to the overall health, welfare and well-being of society.
It includes any policy that attempts to improve or regulate registration, reimbursement, and distribution of pharmaceuticals.

Making pharmaceutical policy requires an understanding of the institutional systems through which pharmacy services and programs are delivered, funded, and regulated, and through which pharmaceutical policy is made and implemented.

Research within this area often focuses on how the actors in the drug market interact and on new technological developments which impact medicines use.
This can for example be research that focuses on how users can be involved as new partners in the development of medicines and new medicine-related services; and how changes in manufacturing practices will impact distribution and use of medicines.

Examples of Pharmaceutical Policy projects

  • Additive manufacturing of personalized medicine - its impact on the society
  • Identifying hurdles in access to medicines in low and middle income countries
  • Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector
  • Direct to Healthcare Professional Communication of Risk Minimization Initiatives.